Wednesday, 10 November 2021



Tuesday, 4 December 2018

Thursday, 6 April 2017

Bhakra Nangal Project:
It is the largest in India on Sutlej River. It's a joint venture of Punjab, Harayana and Rajasthan.
It has five purposes:
i)                    Two dams at Bhakra and Nangal
ii)                  Nangal hydel channel
iii)                Powerhouse of 1,204 MW
iv)                Electric transmission and
v)                  Bhakra canal system for irrigation.
Bhakra Dam is near Roopnagar, Ropar dist. The dam is 226m in height, 518m in length, 312m in width; behind it is Govind Sagar Lake. Bhakra Dam is near Roopnagar, Ropar dist. The dam is 226m in height, 518m in length, 312m in width; behind it is Govind Sagar Lake. Nangal Hydel Channel 64.4km long, 42.65m wide and 6.28m deep Powerhouse of 1204 MW first near Gangunal. Second Kotla, third near Roopnagar and fourth and fifth near Bhakradam. Bhakra canal 171 km long, maximum water at Haryana (46.7%), then Punjab (37.7% and then Rajasthan (15.6%)

Damodar Valley Project:
Damodar is a tributary of Hughly river in Bengal and has four dams. It was setup on 19th Feb 1948 on the recommendation of W.L. Vordouin, the person who setup TVA in America.
The four dams are:
Tilaiya dam on Barakar River; started in 1950 and completed in 1953. Its length is 366m, and maximum width is 30m. It is the only concrete dam in the area. It has two power stations of 2,000 KW each.
Konar dam on Konar River is in Hazarihagh. 3549 m long, maximum height 49m, completed in 1955. It supplies electricity to Bokaro Steel Project. Maithan dam on the confluence of Barakar and Damodar Rivers, 994m long and maximum height is 49m, completed in 1958, capacity is 60 MW.
Panchet hill dam on Damodar river, completed in 1959, dam is 2545m long and maximum height is 49m, generates 40MW.
Durgapur Barrage23km from Raniganj, stores irrigation water of 4 DVC dams, it is 83 lm long and 12m high.
Hirakud Dam:
61m high, 4801m long, on Mahandi rivers(orissa)
It is the largest dam in India and one of the largest dams of the world with the gross storage capacity of 8100 Million cubic meters.
Two more dams have been built on Mahanadi Tibrapar and Naraj
Kosi Project:
It was started in 1955 with five objectives:(i)Irrigation (ii)Flood control(iii)Power generation(iv)Land reclamation and(v)Fishing and Navigation.
There are three units at this Kosi Project:
A barrage near Hanumannagar (Nepal), 1149m long 72m high, Constructed in 1965.
Flood embankments, built 1959, 270km Eastern Kosi canal, 43.5km long
A powerhouse of 20 MW, has been installed, which is shared by both India and Nepal.
Rihand Valley Project:
934m long. 92m high dam on river Rihand a tributary of Sone, near Pipri in Mirzapur
Govind Ballabh PantSagar, is the largest man made reservoir in India.
One more project has been built at Ovea on Rihand River.
Chambal Valley Project:
It is a joint venture of M.P and Rajasthan started in 1954 on Chambal River (tributary of Yamuna)
In the first stage the dam was 64m high and 514m long, was called Gandhi Sagar Dam, it is in chaurasigarh near Bhanpura, built in 1960.
In the second stage, one more dam was built which was 54m high and 1143m long was named Ranapratap Masonry Dam. It is 56km from Rawatbhata
In the third stage, the dam was 548m long and 45m high called Jawahar Sagar dam at Kota Dam, constructed in 1971.
Tungbhadra Project:
It is a joint venture of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh
The dam is 50m high and 2,441m long on Tungbhadra River (a tributary of Krishna)
It is built in Bellary dist. of Karnataka
There are canals on both sides of the dam.
There are three power stations.
Gandak Project:
Joint venture of Bihar and U.P
This project has 7.47m long and 9.81m high barrage at Bhansolotan in Valmikinagar in Bihar
The project was completed in 1967
Head Regulator is at Triveni
The barrage has four canal two each for India and Nepal
Narmada Valley Project:
Narmada originates near Amarkantak Plateau (M.P)
It is the fifth largest river in India.
The project aims to have 29 major and 3,000 small dams -The project was concieved in 1945-46.
The largest project is Sardar Sarovar Project has the capacity of 77 lakh hectare and will provide is irrigation to 17.92 lakh hectares in Gujarat.
Two power stations will produce 1,450 MW of hydroelectricity
Second major project is Narmada Sagar project started in 1984.
Nagaraiuna Sagar Project:
Started in 1955-56, the dam is on Krishna River in Nalgonda district.
Its height is 124.7m and length is 1450m.
It has two canals Jawahar on the right and Lai Bahadur canal on the left
The powerhouse has two units, 50 MW each.
Vyas Project (BEAS):
It is a joint venture of Punjabi, Haryana and Rajasthan,
It has two parts, Beas Sutlej link and Pong dam,
Beas Sutlej is 61 m high,
Ramganga Project:
Ramganga is a tributary of Ganga.
Aim of the project is to provide irrigation facilities to about 6 lakh hectares of land in western U.P, to supply 20 cusecs of drinking water to Delhi and to control the floods in western and central U.P
This project includes:
A 625.8m long and 125.6m high earth and rock filled dam across the Ramganga river and a Saddle dam of height 75.6m across the Ghuisot steam near Kalagarh in dist of Garhwal Across the river a 546m long weir at Hereoli
A feeder canal, 82km in length originating from Hereoli River Remodelling of 3388km of existing dam and 3880km long new branch canals A powerhouse on the river at its right bank with an installed capacity of 198 MW.
Mayurakshi Project:
Mayurakshi is a tributary of the Hughli River
Purpose behind this project is four fold:(i)Create irrigation potential,(ii) Generate power, (iii) Control floods and (iv)Control erosion.
A barrage is constructed across the Mayurakshi River at Tilpara.
Two irrigational canals are attached with the Tilpara barrage with total length of 1367 km and providing irrigation in West Bangal and Bihar 4,000 KW of electricity is supplied to Birbhum, Murshidabad and Santhal Pargana, which is generated by this project.
Indira Gandhi Canal Project:
It is the world's largest irrigation project to provide irrigation to semi arid and arid regions of Rajasthan.
Water from Pong barrage built over Beas River is being utilized.
Indira Gandhi canal once completed will provide irrigation to about 12.51akh hectares of land in Bikaner, Jaisalmer and Ganganagar dist of Rajasthan.
It has two stages, in the first stage construction of the Rajasthan feeder, 189 km long Rajasthan main and about 3,183km long distribution have been taken. The second stage comprises the construction of the remaining part of the Rajasthan main canal and 5,409km long distributaries.
Pochampad Project:
This irrigation project is the second largest project in Andhra Pradesh.
It involve 812m in length and 43m of height masonry dam on the Godavari River in Adilabad district.
The storage capacity of the dam is 230.36 cross m3 -A canal of length 112.63km will provide irrigation facilities in Karimnagar and Adilabad districts .
Tehri Dam Project:
Alaknanda is the river on which this dam is being constructed in Tehri district of Uttranchal.
Motives behind this project is to collect the flood water of the Bhagirathi and the Bhilangana rivers in a large reservoir behind the dam Hydroelectricity generation, To provide irrigation facilities to agricultural land in the westem U.P.
Tehri dam has a distinction of highest rock fill dam in the country,
2,70,000 hectares of agricultural land in western U.P and Delhi with the supply of 300 cusecs is going to be facilitated by this project.
2,400 MW is the installed capacity of power generation A concrete dam at Kateshwar, 22km away from the Tehri dam will impound water released by the Tehri dam, from where another 400 MW of electricity will be generated.
Farraka Barrage Project:
River Navigation and to augment the water flow river is the main objective of this project. A barrage across the Ganga River, 2,240 in length to maintain 271akh cu sec of flood discharge 60,000 cusec of floodwater flow to be maintained by a barrage across the Bhagirathi river length will be 213 m. A feeder canal 38.38km in length to divert 40,000 cusecs of water to Hughli River.
Providing infrastructure to develop river navigation and To build a rail cum road bridge to connect West Bengal with North East India.
Machkund Project:
It is a joint venture of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.
A dam of height 54m and 410 m in length, has been constructed on Machkund river.
Project includes a powerhouse with 115 MW as the installed capacity.
Parambikulam Project:
This Project is a joint venture of Kerala and Tamil nadu.
Under this project 185 MW of electricity will be generated and 1.01 lakh hectare of land will be irrigated.
Water of 8 small rivers would be utilised.
Mahi Project:
It is on Mahi River, which has its origin in Vindhyas in Dhardis of M.P.
First stage 796 m in length and 21m of height dam is being constructed at Banakbori village. This stage also has 74km long canals to irrigate 1.86 hectares of land.
2nd stage construction of a dam of 1,430m in length and 58 m high to irrigation 80,000 of area near kodana.
A generation of 40 MW of electricity with irrigation of 2.75 lakh hectares of land is going to be done by this project.
Kakrapara Project:
Project is in Gujarat on Tapti River.
Project involves a dam 14 m high and 621m long.
2.27 lakh hectares of land will be irrigated with the help of two canals of 505 km and 837 km in length.
Koyna Project:
In Maharashtra, on Koyna river.
Project involves construction of a dam 250 m in height.
Hansdev Bango Project:
Project involves construction of a 85m high stone dam on Hansdev river in M.P.
It will irrigate 3.28 lakh hectares of land and also be used for industrial purposes.
Bargi Project:
It is on river Bargi near Jabalpur in M.P.
It is a multipurpose project once completed will irrigate 2.45 lakh hectares of land. 25, Bhima Project.
This project includes construction of two dams -One dam on river Pabna near Pune in Maharashtra, which will be 1,319 m long and 42m high.
Other dam with a length of 2467m and a height of 56.4m will be constructed on river Krishna in Sholapur district of Maharashtra.
Some other Projects are:
Jayakwadi Project: on Godavri in Maharashtra.
Ukai Project: on River Tapti in Gujarat.
Puma Project: on River Puma in Maharashtra.
Periyar Project: on River Periyar in Kerala.
Saharawasi Hydel Project: near Jog water falls in Karnataka.
Tawa Project: on Tawa River. M.P.
Mata Teela Dam: on River Betwa, Jhansi; U.P,
Kunda Project: Tamil Nadu.
Sabrigiri Project: Kerala.
Balimela: Orissa.
Salal: on River Chenab
Kalindi: Karnataka
Idduki: Kerala
Bhadra: on River Bhadra, Karnataka.
Kukadi: Maharashtra
Naptha Jhakri: Himachal Pradesh.
Dulhasti: Jammu and Kashmir on river Chenab.
Girna: on river Girna, Maharashtra
Jawai Project: on River Jawai, Rajasthan
Jakham Project: Rajasthan
Parwati Project: River Parwat, Rajasthan
Orai Project: River Orai, Rajasthan

Singrauli Super Power Project: Uttar Pradesh

■ India has 3.3 million km of road network and the second largest in the world. The road traffic accounts for about 80% of the passenger traffic and 60% of the goods.
■ In India, roadways have preceded railways. 43.5% of the total roads is surfaced roads. In India, roads are classified in the following six classes according to their capacity.
Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways: The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata- Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highways has a total length of 5846kms. The North-South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu) and East-West Corridor connecting Silcher (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat) are part of this project. The project has a total length of about 7300km. The major objective of these Super Highways is to reduce the time and distance between the mega cities of India. These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).
National Highways: National Highways link extreme parts of the country. These are the primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). A number of major National Highways run in North-South and East-West directions. The historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called National Highway No.1, between Delhi and Amritsar. The total length of the National Highways is 58,112 km. constitutes only two percent of the total road length but carry 40% of the total road traffic. NH 7 passes through Jabalpur, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Bangalore and Madurai and is the longest one with the total length of 2369 km.
State Highways: Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways. These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD) in State and Union Territories. These roads constitute 5.6% of total length of all roads.
District Roads: These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district. These roads are maintained by the Zilla Parishad.
Border Roads: Apart from these, Border Roads Organisation a Government of India undertaking constructs and maintains roads in the bordering areas of the country. This organisation was established in 1960 for the development of the roads of strategic importance in the northern and northeastern border areas. These roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain and have helped in the economic development of these areas.

Road Density : The length of road per 100 sq. km of area is known as density of roads. Distribution of road is not uniform in the country.
Lowest in Jammu and Kashmir (10 km).
Highest in Kerala (375 km)
National Average (75 km).
Density of metalled roads: National average (42.4 km)
Goa has the highest density (153.8 km)
Jammu and Kashmir has the lowest density (3.7 km).

■ Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India. Indian Rail transport is largest in Asia and fourth largest in the world.
■ The Indian Railways is the largest public sector undertaking in the country with 1.6 million staff.
■ The first train steamed off from Mumbai (Bori Bunder) to Thane in 1853, covering a distance of 34 km.
■ The Indian Railway have a network of 7, 031 stations spread over a route length of 63, 221 km. with a fleet of 7817 locomotives, 5321 passenger service vehicles, 4904 other coach vehicles and 228, 170 wagons as on 31 March 2004.

The Indian Railway is now reorganized into 17 zones.
Head Quarters
Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus)



Mumbai (Churchgate)

North East

North East Frontier
Malegaon (Guwahati)

South East

South Central

East Coast

East Central
- Hajipur

North Central

North Eastern

South Western

West Central

South East Central Railway
Konkan Railway
Navi Mumbai

Units manufacturing rolling stocks run by Indian Railways.
Chittaranjan locomotive works
Chittaranjan (West Bengal).
Diesel locomotive works
Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh).
Integral Coach Factory
Perambur (Tamil Nadu).
Rail Coach Factory
Kapurthala (Punjab).
Wheel and Axle plant
Bangalore (karnataka).
Diesel Component works
Patiala (Punjab).
M/s Jessops
Kolkata (West Bengal).
Bharat Earth Movers Ltd
Bangalore (Karnataka).

Railway Track Density:
High Density : Delhi, Punjab, Bihar, W. Bengal, Haryana, Assam, Chandigarh, Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, and Gujarat.
Medium Density (1525 km/ 1000 this covers the western part of the peninsula incorporating Goa, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Rajasthan.
Low Density (515km/ 1000 eastern part of the peninsular India. Orissa and Madhya Pradesh (undulating topography, low population density and poor economic development have led to low density of rail network.).
Very Low Density

■ India has inland navigation waterways of 14,500 km in length. Out of these only 3,700 km are navigable by mechanised boats. Out of the 4,300 km canal length, 900 km is navigable but only 330 km is used.
■ The following waterways have been declared as the National Waterways by the Government:
■ The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km)-N.W. No.1
■ The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km)-N.W. No.2
■ The West-Coast Canal in Kerala (Kottapurma-Komman, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals-205 km) – N.W. No.3
■ The other viable inland waterways include the Godavari, Krishna, Barak, Sunderbans, Buckingham Canal, Brahmani, East-west Canal and Damodar Valley Corporation Canal.
■ The Inland Water Ways Authority of India was set up in 1986 for the regulation, maintenance and development of National Waterways.

Sea Ways:
■ With a long coastline of 7,516.6 km, India is dotted with 12 major and 184 medium and minor ports. These major ports handle 95 per cent of India’s foreign trade.
■ Mumbai is the biggest port with a spacious natural and well-sheltered harbour. The Jawaharlal Nehru port was planned with a view to decongest the Mumbai port and serve as a hub port for this region.
■ Marmagao port (Goa) is the premier iron ore exporting port of the country. This port accounts for about fifty per cent of India’s iron ore export.
■ New Mangalore port, located in Karnataka caters to the export of iron ore concentrates from Kudremukh mines.
■ Kochi is the extreme south-western port, located at the entrance of a lagoon with a natural harbour.
■ Kandla in Kuchchh was the first port developed soon after Independence to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port, in the wake of loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after the Partition. Kandla is a tidal port.
■ Moving along the east coast, you would see the extreme south-eastern port of Tuticorin, in Tamil Nadu. This port has a natural harbour and rich hinterland. Thus, it has a flourishing trade handling of a large variety of cargoes to even our neighbouring countries like Sri Lanka, Maldives, etc. and the coastal regions of India.
■ Chennai is one of the oldest artificial ports of the country. It is ranked next to Mumbai in terms of the volume of trade and cargo.
■ Vishakhapatnam is the deepest landlocked and well-protected port. This port was, originally, conceived as an outlet for iron ore exports.
■ Paradip port located in Orissa, specialises in the export of iron ore.
■ Kolkata is an inland riverine port. This port serves a very large and rich hinterland of Ganga- Brahmaputra basin. Being a tidal port, it requires constant dredging of Hoogly.
■ Haldia port was developed as a subsidiary port, in order to relieve growing pressure on the Kolkata port.

■ The air transport was nationalized in 1953.
■ Airport Authority of India (AAI) provides for safe efficient air traffic and aeronautical communication services in the India Air Space.
■ The Authority manages 11 international and 112 domestic Airports.
■ It also manages 28 passenger terminals at defense airfields.

International Air Ports.
International Air Port
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Air Port
Indira Gandhi International Air Port
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Air Port
Meenambakkam International Air Port
Thiruvananthpuram International Air Port
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel Air Port
Needumbassery International Air Port
Dabolim International Air Port
Lokpriya Gopinath Bardoloi International Air Port
Rajiv Gandhi International Air Port
Amritsar International Air Port
Banglore International Air Port

■ Civil Aviation Training College (Allahabad) provides training on various operational areas.
■ National Institute of Aviation Management and Research (NIAMAR) at Delhi is managed by AAI.
■ Indira Gandhi Rastriya Udan Academy at Fursat Ganj in U.P is an autonomous body under Ministry of Civil Aviation. It imparts training to the parts.
■ On the operational side, Indian Airlines, Alliance Air (subsidiary of Indian Airlines), private scheduled airlines and non- scheduled operators provide domestic air services. Air India provides international air services.
■ Pawanhans Helicopters Ltd. Provides helicopter services to Oil and Natural Gas Commission in its off- shore operations, to inaccessible areas and difficult terrains like the north-eastern states and the interior parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal.
■ Indian Airlines operations also extend to the neighboring countries of Southand south-east Asia and the Middle East.

■ Pipeline transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of India. In the past, these were used to transport water to cities and industries. Now, these are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants.
■ The far inland locations of refineries like Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and gas based fertilizer plants could be thought of only because of pipelines.There are three important networks of pipeline transportation in the country.
■ From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
■ From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu and other places.
■ Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahajahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.

The Indian postal network is the largest in the world. In comparison with the other country, India has about 37,565 telephone exchanges spread all over in the country. Newspapers are published in about 100 languages and dialects. The largest number of newspapers published in the country is in Hindi, followed by English and Urdu. India is the largest producer of feature films in the world. The Central Board of Film Certification is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films.

International Trade:

India has trade relations with all the major trading blocks and all geographical regions of the world. Among the commodities of export, whose share has been increasing over the last few years are agriculture and allied products (2.53 percent), ores and minerals (9.12 percent), gems and jewellery (26.75 percent) and chemical and allied products (24.45 per cent), engineering goods( 35.63 percent) and petroleum products (86.12 percent) The commodities imported to India include petroleum and petroleum products (41.87 percent), pearls and precious stones (29.26 percent), inorganic chemicals (29.39 percent), coal, coke and briquettes (94.17 per cent), machinery (12.56 per cent). Bulk imports as a group registered a growth accounting for 39.09 per cent of total imports. This group includes fertilizers (67.01 per cent), cereals (25.23 per cent), edible oils (7.94 per cent) and newsprint (5.51 per cent).